SPAD Progress Review in Nature Journal
"A host of architectures have been investigated, ranging from simpler implementations, based solely on off-chip data processing, to progressively “smarter” sensors including on-chip, or even pixel level, time-stamping and processing capabilities. As the technology has matured, a range of biophotonics applications have been explored, including (endoscopic) FLIM, (multibeam multiphoton) FLIM-FRET, SPIM-FCS, super-resolution microscopy, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, NIROT and PET. We will review some representative sensors and their corresponding applications, including the most relevant challenges faced by chip designers and end-users. Finally, we will provide an outlook on the future of this fascinating technology."
Once we talk about SPADs research, EPFL and Weizmann Institute of Science publish arxiv.org paper "Quantum correlation measurement with single photon avalanche diode arrays" by Gur Lubin, Ron Tenne, Ivan Michel Antolovic, Edoardo Charbon, Claudio Bruschini, and Dan Oron.
"Progress in single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array technology highlights their potential as high performance detector arrays for quantum imaging and photon number resolving (PNR) experiments. Here, we demonstrate this potential by incorporating a novel on-chip SPAD array with 55% peak photon detection probability, low dark count rate and crosstalk probability of 0.14% per detection, in a confocal microscope. This enables reliable measurements of second and third order photon correlations from a single quantum dot emitter. Our analysis overcomes the inter-detector optical crosstalk background even though it is over an order of magnitude larger than our faint signal. To showcase the vast application space of such an approach, we implement a recently introduced super-resolution imaging method, quantum image scanning microscopy (Q-ISM)."